Modest Mussorgsky

Modest Mussorgsky


• 1839 1881

Editor's Choice

Dogged by his reputation as an alcoholic, Modest Mussorgsky nevertheless made a significant contribution to the history of Russian music. A member of the celebrated 'Five' Saint Petersburg-based composers, he composed an abundance of piano works, many of which were later orchestrated by other composers. Drawing inspiration from a friend’s drawings, Mussorgsky composed a piano suite - Pictures at an Exhibition - over three weeks in 1874, presumably with no inkling that it would become his most famous work. Orchestrated by Ravel in 1922, the work depicts scenes from Hartmann's overseas travels. Animals, structures, fairy-tale creatures, and situations of conflict are depicted in a wonderfully descriptive fashion. The earlier 'Night on the Bare Mountain' - composed seven years earlier - is considered one of the first examples of a Russian tone poem. Although its first draft didn't impress his teacher, Miliy Balakirev, Mussorgsky persevered and re-used some of the material in later works. It wasn't until after his death in - at the tragically young age of 42 - that 'Night on the Bare Mountain' was performed, albeit in another form. Another member of 'The Five', Rimsky-Korsakov salvaged a version and published it as a 'Fantasy for Orchestra'. Venezuelan superstar Gustavo Dudamel leads the Vienna Philharmonic in a magnificent recording of Mussorgsky's most famous works, made at their home concert hall of the Musikverein. In a knowing nod to Vienna's waltz heritage, the inclusion of an encore from Tchaikovsky's Swan Lake rounds out this rather special album. Dudamel led members of the orchestra in a special project at the time of recording, inspired by his own experiences in Venezuela's 'Sistema', offering lessons to children in a deprived part of the city.


His musical education was erratic, he toiled as a civil servant and wrote music only part-time, influenced few if any of his contemporaries, died early from alcoholism, and left a small body of work. Yet Modest Mussorgsky was a towering figure in nineteenth century Russian music. His works exhibit a daring, raw individuality, a unique sound that well-meaning associates tried to conventionalize and smooth over. He is best known for Night on Bald Mountain (bowdlerized by Rimsky-Korsakov), Pictures at an Exhibition (a difficult piano suite orchestrated by Ravel), and the dark, declamatory opera Boris Godunov (polished by Rimsky-Korsakov) -- bastardized works all, yet each one full of arresting harmonies, disturbing colors, and grim celebrations of Russian nationalism.

Mussorgsky died in poverty, but he was born to a wealthy landowning family. Under his mother's tutelage, he developed a facility at the piano, but entered a cadet school in preparation for a military career. He joined a choir and discovered Russian church music, which would profoundly influence his later work.

Upon graduation in 1856, Mussorgsky entered the Russian Imperial Guard. That year he started to socialize with the composers Dargomizhsky and Cui, and through them Balakirev, with whom he began composition lessons. During this period he wrote small piano pieces and songs, and after an emotional crisis in 1858 resigned his commission with the intention of composing full-time. He began to go his own way as a composer in 1861, but was preoccupied helping to manage his family's estate. The decline in his family's fortunes led him to accept low-level civil service positions. He joined a commune with other intellectuals and became a proponent of musical Realism, applying the style to his songs. He had difficulty finishing works in larger formats, but his music circulated widely enough that by the late 1860s he was cast with Balakirev, Cui, Rimsky-Korsakov, and Borodin as part of Russia's "Mighty Handful."

Mussorgsky toiled many years at his masterpiece, Boris Godunov, which reflected in music the inflections of Russian speech and met with great success in 1874. That year he also produced his innovative piano suite Pictures at an Exhibition. Yet his heavy drinking led to his dismissal from government service in 1880. Friends offered some financial help and Mussorgsky occasionally accompanied singers at the piano, but his finances and mental state quickly deteriorated. He died in 1881, leaving it to posterity to sort through and complete his unfinished works of unruly genius.